Tuesday, June 3, 2008

Male Gross Anatomy.. no that's what HE said

Do you need a quick review of Histology slides without journeying to an open lab??? Check out this web site... you can literally ZOOM IN on the slides online. Sweet! Thanks to
University of Iowa

As always, my all time favorite SIU med web site their histology is comprehensive respiratory to reproductive with great explanations in only a few sentences.

Terms to Know: *** know on cadaver if *** asterisks present Sorry I need pics of the models... be careful however if googling such titles... Haha
Scrotum***- skin and fascia
Tunica Albuginea***- white cord most inner
Tunica Vaginalis***- double layered covering
Spermatic Cord***- in the cord contains/ holds all
Pampiniform plexus- testes veins
Cremaster muscle- helps regulate temperature with proximity
Ductus Deferens (vas deferens)
Ejaculatory duct
Prostatic- through prostate
membranous- below prostate to penis short
Spongy Penile Urethra ***

Corpus Spongiosum ***- holds urethra in middle
Corpus Cavernosa***-
Glans Penis***-extension of spongiosa
Prepuce*** (foreskin)

Prostate Gland- 1/3 seminal fluid
Seminal Vesicles- 2/3 seminal fluid
Bulbourethral glands- clear viscous pre-ejaculate

1- Tunica albuginea
3- Septum
4- Epididymis

Female Anatomy Plenty to grow in...

Hilium- vessels enter ovary
Corpus Luteum
Graafian Follicle
Fimbriae- fingers connected to fallopian tubes gather oocyte
Infundibulum- next to fimbriae
Ampulla- large region where fallopian tubes turn
Isthmus- connect fillopian tubes to uterus

Endometrium- inner portion which is shed
Myoetrium- thich muscular wall
perimetrium- outside wall
Round ligament- connects uterus to abdominal wall

Cervix- extention of uterus to vagina
Cervical canal
broad ligament
mons pubis
labia majora (s. labium majus)
labia minora (s. labium minus)
mammary duct- produces milk
lactiferous sinus- milk stored
Colostrum- yellowish made first and second day after egg implantation

Actual Class dissections labeled:
Ovary Gross Anat

White Pins-
2- fimbriae
3- infundibulum
4- Ampulla
5- Isthmus
6- Hilum
7- Graafian Follicle
8- Corpus Luteum

Ovary gross Anat
Ovary Gross Anat

Uterus Pinned:

Red Pins-
1- Ovary
2- Oviduct
3- endometrium
4- Myometrium
5- perimetrium
6- Cervical Canal
7- Cervix
8- Broad Ligament


Monday, June 2, 2008

Testes and Male hisotology- guys are like SO easy!

terms to know:
Seminiferous Tubules- tunica albugenia extending into septum
Sertoli cells- cell with dark nucleus clear outside
Spermatogonia- dense to outside less developed
Spermatocytes- less denseley packed
Spermatids- smaller late form with a tail
Interstitial cells (Cells of Leydig)- between seminiferous tubules
Tunica Albuginea

Testes Seminiferous Tubules

testes leydig cells

Efferent Ductules- long ducts carry sperm to epididymis- wavy edged lumes with spermatazoa in center
Ductus Epididymis-
Stereocilia- line the epididymis
Testes Epididymis

Vas Deferens:
Testes Vas Deference

Glands of Littlre
Corpora Cavernosa-
Corpus Spongiosum- contains urethra to center
Tunica Albuginea- covers corpora cavernosa

Secretory Glands:
Seminal Vesicle- production 2/3 semen fluid in this highly folded mucosa
Prostatic Concretions- main thing in gland look glossy and pink


Spermatic cord-
Pampiniform plexus- veins near ductus deferens
Smooth Muscle-
male urethra

Female Ovary Histology- should it be HERstology?

Ovary terms to know:
tunica albuginea- between germinal epithelium and cortex
germinal epithelium- outtermost layer
Primordial follicle- earliest stage found before birth in women has very small s squamous surrounding
Primary Follicle- 2nd stage simle cuboidal layer
Secondary Follicle- antrum in cell, thecal cells surrounding
Graafian Follicle- has stand/pedestal called cumulous oophorus
Corpus luteum- empty space after oocyte is expelled produces progesterone if oocyte fertilized and implanted
Antretic Follicle- results if oocyte not implanted
Antrum- open space filled with follicular fluid- fluid signifies 2nd follicle in late stage, the off follicle becming Graafian follicle
Follicular Fluid
Primary oocyte
Secondary oocyte
zoa pellucida- pink ribbon glycoprotein between granulosa cell
corona radiata- protects oocyte by bathing it with estrogen
cumulus oophorus
theca interna- outside follicle darker area
follicular cells





To Womb it May concern Uterine and Menstrual Histo

Uterine Histology

Endometrium- functional layer which is expelled monthly
Basal Layer- Layer Not expelled in menses from which spiral veins grow
Functional Layer- contain uterine gland
Myometrium- Muscular layer deep to endometrium
Perimetrium- outer lining of uterus
Endometrial Glands
Venous sinuses- also called lakes form in endometrium during menses and are shed
layers of uterus


Vagina Histology:
Stratified Squamous epithelium- contains a darker stain than the stratified squamous of anal canal. The Stratification and tight cell junctions prevent against injury as on the skin. Unlike skin these are unkeratinized USUALLY, excessive alcohol and drugs can actually begin keratinization of these cells.
Vascular Submucosa- deep region with blood vessells

Uterus Stratified Squamous

Menstrual Stages of Histology (NOTE: these differ from the physiological/hormonal stages)
Week 1- Menstrual Week superficial layer is torn with veins and arteries present
Week 2- Proliferative week not as thick repairing superficial layer
Week(s) 3-4 Secretory Week thick with endocrine and gland activity, also contains cork screw shape

No slides per TA of menstrual cycle

Tuesday, May 20, 2008

Kidney Gross Anatomy- Ewww You're in for fun with Urine production

Kidney terms to know:
Hilium (hilius)- renal artery, vein and ureter enter/leave kidney
Renal Capsule- smooth transport membrane that adheres tightly to external aspect of kidney
Cortex- Superficial kidney layer- lighter in color and full of Bowman's capsules
Medulla- Deep to cortex, darker red/brown holds loops of henle
Medullary pyramids- triangular and striated sections, base facing cortex
papilla (apex)- points to inner kidney
kidney model

Renal Columns- area of cortex which dips between pyramids
Renal Pelvis- Medial to hilus, relatively flat/basin-like cavity w/ ureter
Major Calyx- large external of renal pelvis
Minor Calyx- subdivision of major calyx
Renal Artery/Vein- branches 5x's as it enters the kidney it becomes --->
Segmental Arteries- enter hilus it becomes --->
Lobar Arteries- it becomes --->
Interlobar Arteries-
Aracate Arteries- at top of medullary region, these curve over base of medullary pyramid
Interlobular Arteries- ascend into cortex giving off--->
Afferent Arterioles

kidney blood flow

Pinned Models from class:

kidney pig pinned 2

kidney pinned 5

1. Cortex
2. Renal Pyramid of Medulla
3. Minor Calyx
4. renal Column
5. Major Calyx
6. Renal Pelvis
7. Ureter
8. Papilla of Pyramid

1. Renal Artery
2. Renal Vein
3. Segmental Arteries
4. Interlobar Artery

kidney pinned 4

kidney pinned 2

kidney pig pinned 3

Additional Structures of Urinary System

Other structures to know:

Adrenal Gland



Histology of the kidney- A lot to process

Kidney terms to Know:


Cortical Nephron
Juxtamedullary Nephron
Renal Corpuscle

Bowman's Capsule (Glomerular Capsule)
visceral layer-consists of podocyte touching glomerulus
parietal layer- simple squamous
vascular pole- side w/ afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole & DCT
urinary pole- opposite of vascular pole
Bowman's Space

Bowman's capsule

kidney glom histo

kidney histo 2

kidney histo

Proximal Convoluted tubule
Distal convoluted tubule
Macula densa
glomerulus macula densa
bowman's space and tubules
P are the PCT and D are the DCT

Loop of Henle
thick segment
thin segment
Collecting ducts
Papillary Ducts
Minor calyx
Medullary Ray
Kidney Lobule
Juxtaglomerular Cells
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Afferent Arteriole
Efferent Arteriole
vasa recta
Peritubular capillaries


nephron 2

kidney nephron

nephron model

Bladder and Ureters histology that goes right through you

Bladder and Ureters terms to know:

Transitional Epithelium
Subepithelial CT
lamina propria
bladder and muscle layers
inner longitudinal
middle circular
outer longitudinal

Bladder muscle layers and transitional epithelium
bladder transitional epithelium

Stellate lumen of ureter- wavy epithelium
Ureter muscle layers
inner longitudinal
outer circular

Ureter muscle layers labeled
urethra muscle

Unlabeled layers
ureter muscle

Urethra muscle layers

urethra layers

a quick overview of bladder and ureter histology from Suny Downstate Medical Center... never heard of it, but the info is good.

Pathways of fluid flow through kidney and urinary system

Great kidney info site by Vanderbilt University.. unfortunately the slides cannot be pulled up... only a few very good pics are accessible. vanderbilt U info

As usual, the best web site with a plethora of histo pics is SIU Med they pretty much rock the house of histo with tons of slides and great info as well...

Another good kidney histology site from some Tyler Junior College they have a few slides of each part of the kidney.

Histology from Pittsburg University The labels and info included are concise and easy to skim through fr review

Blood flow through kidney:

Renal Artery---> segmental artery---> lobar artery---> interlobar artery---> arculate artery---> interlobular artery---> afferent arteriole---> glomerular capillaries---> efferent arteriole---> peritubular capillaries---> vasa recta (juxtamedullary nephrons only) ---> interlobular vein---> arcuate vein---> interlobar vein--->renal vein

Blood flow through urine:

Glomerulus---> Bowman's capsule---> proximal tube---> descending loop of henle---> ascending loop of Henle---> DCT distal convaluted tubule---> collecting duct---> papillary duct---> minor calyx---> major calyx---> renal pelvis---> ureter---> bladder---> urethra---> and out of the body

Monday, May 5, 2008

Oral cavity and Salivary Glands... It's not just talk

Oral Cavity: *pictures later tonight*

Pulp Cavity
Cementum- between dentin and peridontal ligament
Cementocytes- produces cementum
Odontoblasts- produces dentin
Peridontal Ligament- between dentin/gingiva
Taste buds-contain gusta sustentacular cell
Taste Pores- where bud enters space near papillae
Gustatory cells-
Sustentacular cells-


Taste Buds
taste buds labeled

Taste Pores

Salivary Glands:
Submandibular or sublingual gland-
mucous cells-
serous demilunes- clump of light stained mucous cells with a mucous "hat"
intralobular duct-
interlobular duct-

Salivary Parotid Gland-
Salivary parotid gland

Salivary Submandibular Gland
Salivary submandibular gland

Salivary Sublingual gland
salivary sublingual gland

Intralobular duct
salivary intralobular duct

Interlobular duct (see pointer end)
salivary intralobular duct